Misleading information

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  • Created by: Moldred
  • Created on: 02-05-16 19:05

Leading Questions- Loftus and Palmer 1974

Experiment 1: Procedure

45 p's were shown a series of traffic accidents and asked a series of questions about them including a critical question- "about how fast were the cars traveling at when the hit/smashed/bumped/contacted/collided with each other?" the verb varied in each condition. 


smashed = 40.8 mh

collided= 39.3 mph

bumped= 38.1 mph

hit= 34.0 mph

contacted= 31.8 mph 

Experiment 2: Procedure 

To see if leading questions only bias a p's response or change the memory, p's were again shown a film of a car accident and were asked the same critical question as above, however they were asked to return a week later and asked a series of new questions including "did you see any broken glass?" 


Smashed= 16 said yes. 34 said no

Hit= 7 said yes. 43 said no

Control= 6 said yes. 44 said no

Post-event discussion 

Conformity effect

in matched pairs, each partner watched a different video and in one condition they were encouraged to discuss the


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