Methodological Issues Related To The Study of Paranormal Cognition

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  • Created by: tiacoles
  • Created on: 20-04-16 13:05

Extra Sensory Perception - Ganzfield

  • Preparing the reciever - relaxes in a room for half hour, recieving white or pink noise to eliminate sensory input from sounds. Halved table tennis balls are placed on the eyes and a red light shone in the face producing an overall mild sense of sensory deprivation. A relaxation tape is also played, hallucinations can occur.
  • Sending the target - sender is in another soundproof room with opaque packets filled with 4 images. The sender uses mental intention to telepathetically relay the message. 
  • Judging the outcome - a session last between 15 and 30 minutes, then the reciever is relieved and presented with four images to rate from the mental imagery recieved. The order is randomised. 
  • Recievers should achieve about 25 per cent success rate. 
  • Ray Hyman produced flaws:
  • Security - sensory leakage by experimenters talking to recievers. 
  • Statistical - wrong choice of tests and inappropriate forms of analysis
  • Procedural - randomisation and documentation problems. 
  • Honorton and Ferrari conducted a meta-analysis that found 30% significance. 
  • Milton and Wiseman found no significance

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