Memory Models

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Multi Store Model

  • Developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin
  • Explains how information flows from one storage system to another
  • 3 permanent structures (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory)
  • Stages differ in terms of: capacity, duration, encoding
  • SM - recieves info through the sense
  • STM - small fraction attended to and selected for further processing here. if not attented to, sensory info is immediately forgotten or not processed at all
  • LTM - info is actively processed (rehearsal) for more permanent storage
  • Encoding - the means by which information is represented in memory
  • Storage - the retention of information in memory
  • Retrieval - 

Baddeley (1966)

  • Aim - examine whether encoding in STM is primary acoustic or semantic
  • Procedure - 75 participants presented with 1 of 4 word lists repeated times. List A = acoustically similar words, B = acoustically disimilar words, C = semantically similar words, D = semantically disimilar words. Participants were given a list of original words in wrong order & ad to rearrange them to correct order. 
  • Findings - list A performed worst (10% recall). confused similar sounding words. Recall for others comparatively good (60%-80%).
  • Conclusion - list A recalled least efficiently = acoustic confusion in STM therefore STM is encoded on acoustic basis.
  • Evaluation - fingins make cognitive sense. Lab experiment so shows cause & effect relationship. May lack ecological validity (not representative). Can be replicated exactly to check results.

Peterson & Peterson (1959)

  • Aim - to investigatiion duration of STM when no rehearsal is allowed
  • Procedure - participants are read a nonsense trigram (3 consonants without meaning) then had to immediately count back in 3's starting…


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