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AIM -To investigate if recall of words is affected by the order that they are presented.

METHOD: Participants heard a long list of words then had to recall them in any order they wished.

RESULTS: Participants’ recall was best for the first and last items on the list and they tended to recall the last few items first.

This is called the primacy - recency effect. 

Primacy - recency effect - first items are remembered due to rehearsal into LTM - primacy

Last items are remembered due to being most recent in STM


establishes cause and effect as we have high control over extraneous variable we can be confident that the IV affects the DV. Having high control means that the results will be reliable and can be replicated. Supports that STM and LTM are separate stores.


Low ecological validity, does not show memory in a realistic and meaningful way. Memorising words and recalling them is an artificial and simple task which does not prove complexity of memory. Results cannot be generalised to real life therefore validity may be an issue.

Capacity - the amount of information that a store can hold

Duration - the length of time memory stores information

Encoding - the way in which information


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