Models of Memory
Multi-Store Model (MSM) - ATKINSON and SHIFFRIN (1968)
Memory is catagorised as a flow of information through a system. The system is divided into a set of stages in which information passes through in a fixed sequence. There are capacity and duration limitations at each stage, and passing information to each stage may require re-coding.
- Incoming stimuli
- Sensory Memory (SM) - Capacity: < 4 items. Duration: < 4 seconds / < 1 second. Encoding: acoustic and visual.
- information loss through decay
- Short Term Memory (STM) - Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items. Duration: < 30 seconds. Encoding: acoustic.
- information loss through decay/ displacement
- Rehearsal transfer
- Long Term Memory (LTM) - Capacity: vast. Duration: life time. Encoding: semantic.
- information loss through decay/ retrieval failure/ interference.
- Distinguishes between STM and LTM stores - Brain Damage and Memory study by MILNER (1965)
- Evidence in support of the MSM by GLANZER and CUNITZ (1966)
- Too simplistic and inflexible to explain the entire memory system.
- Fails to take into account individual strategies people use to remember things, as well as some things just being easier to remember.
- System is interactive, not separate.
- People can acquire new knowledge without rehearsal.
The Working Memory Model (WMM) - BADDELEY and HITCH (1974)
The working memory model replaces the concept of a unitary STM. It proposes a multi-component flexible system concerned with active processing and STM storage of information.
- The Central Executive is the most important component in the WMM and is involved in problem solving and…