Memory- Is a storage system for experiences and knowledge. We remember experiences, images, tastes, touch, smell, sounds after the original stimuli is no longer there.
There are three processes involved with memory. The processes are coding, storage and retrieval.
Coding- The way that information that we are about to remember is taken in and dealt with
Storage- A memory is not considered a memory unless we retain it, therefore there must be a storage system for memories
Retrieval- If we do not show that we remember information, it is questioned whether we ever did remember it, therefore in order to prove something was remembered, we must be able to retrieve it.
The Multi-store model
This model for memory was developed by Atkinson and Schiffrin in 1968. The model suggests that there are three memory stores; sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. The sensory register is a memory that we see/experience but do not properly acknowledge and therefore we cannot remember it. If we were to acknowledge the memories we pick up in sensory register then they would become short term memories. If we rehearsed the short term memories then they would become long term memories which could be retrieved at any time. However if an STM is not rehearsed it is lost.
Below is the duration, capacity and coding in accordance with the Multi-store model for sensory register, short term memory and long term memory.
The SR is not under conscious control, it merely is an automatic response to the reception of sensory activity. All information (according to the multi-store model) passes through the sensory register.
Coding for the SR
In the sensory register the information is stored in a raw and unprocessed form, with separate stores for separate sensory inputs. The echoic store is for auditory information, the iconic store is for visual information, the olfactory store is for scent information, the haptic store is for touch and feel information and the gustatory store is for taste information. Information that is paid attention to will progress into STM.
Crowder 1993 found that information only remains in the iconic store for milliseconds but stays in the echoic store for 2/3 seconds. This supports the idea of different memory stores.
Capacity of the SR
The capacity of the SR is very large as the information is highly detailed yet quickly forgotten.
Sperling found that when showing participants a 3x4 grid of letters they could recall the four letters on the row even though they had only seen it for a twentieth of a second.
Duration of the SR
All sensory memory stores have limited duration, though the actual duration for each store in not constant, as different information types decay at different rates. The duration for all stores seems to decrease with age.
Walsh and Thompson found that the iconic store has an average duration of 500 milliseconds though this was dependant on the participant.
Short term memories…