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a) Paper and Board

Mechanical Pulp

  • Provides a 90% yield from pulpwood due to using whole logs apart from bark
  • Costs are low in terms of investing in mills in comparison to other processes
  • Paper can be bleached to create a higher quality
  • Lower strength than softwood chemical pulps
  • Paper can yellow if exposed to lights because of the high lignin content
  • Due to bleaching there is the issue of sustainability

Chemical Pulp

  • Wood pulp is a higher quality due to stronger and longer fibres and fewer impurities
  • Lignin wasted can be burnt as a fuel substitute (power for natinal grid)
  • Paper is whiter and so used for copier paper
  • Produces lower yield than mechanical method as lignin is dissolved and separate from fibres
  • No chemical pulp is roduced in the UK meaning it must be imported
  • More costsly process

Waste Pulp

  • Uses recycled paper which is a sustainable resource
  • Suitable for lower grades
  • Suited for bulk grades of paper like newsprint, tissue and packaging boards
  • Cannot be fully recycled as pulp loses its quality
  • Doesnt save energy when processing
  • Requires additives to create a suitable quality

Drawing Papers


  • Allows tracing and transfering of ideas
  • Allows skethces to be outlined from page layouts
  • Allows for features to be added without recreating images - time saving 
  • Relatively expensive
  • Flimsy
  • Prone to tearing


  • Similar properties to layout
  • Used for transfering of drawings
  • Saves time in development process
  • Heavier in weight
  • Can be quite expensive
  • Prone to tearing


  • Available in a range of colours
  • Inexpensive when purchases in bulk
  • Had wide range of applications
  • Bleached white - sustainability issue
  • Not easily disposable
  • Environment degradation during manufacture


  • Accepts most media
  • Great strength and thickness
  • Good for drawing paper - variety of weights for medias
  • More expensive than copier paper
  • Ink pens can sometimes cause bleeding
  • Paper is rough

Commercial printing papers


  • Inexpensive when purchased in bulk
  • Available in wide range of colours
  • Used for graphic work - rag pulp which is stronger paper
  • Much higher weight
  • Lower aesthetic quality
  • Rougher texture


  • Smooth flat surface for printing
  • Comes in a range of finishes (high, gloss and silk)
  • High quality - for products subject to repeated handling
  • Relatively expensive
  • Not suitable for sketching - only printing
  • Not suitable for books, etc.

Commercial card and board

Mounting board

  • For presentational work and displays
  • High quality - strength and rigidity
  • Available in wide range of colours
  • Expensive to buy
  • Not suitable for fast prints
  • Colour is only on one side (white on back)


  • Eco friendly product
  • Good for items like disposable trays and inner sleeves
  • Inexpensive
  • Lower quality compared to other cards
  • Has a 'flecked' appearance
  • May not have as long a life span

Folding boxboard

  • Good for scoring, bending and creasing without splitting
  • Great printing surface
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • Not as high quality as solid white board
  • Can only be printed on one side
  • With one bleached side, may not be as durable as solid white

Corrugated board

  • Has good impmact


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