- Impact on audiences
- Group that influences content
- Changes in the media
- Portrayal of Minority Ethnic Groups
- Powerful people/groups in society
Hypodermic Syringe Theory (Direct Approach)
This is when the media gives you a message and you take that message and start acting like what you've seen in the media. The media has a direct powerful affect on the audience. The message goes in immediately like a syringe and then people start behaving differently.
It is millions of messages that the media shows to the audience plenty of times and so it slowly soaks up inside people's heads. They begin to think it's normal. It is a subtle change and takes time to have an effect. It desensitises people and they are no longer shocked by things for e.g. violence becomes a norm.
Opinion Leader Approach
This shows that the media has no effect on the audience, it is who the person giving the message out that matters. People are more likely to be swayed in their opnions by the views of these 'opinion leaders' than directly by the media. People are only influenced by the media when the opinion leaders are in agreement. Not a powerful affect, depends who is giving out the message and whether you respect them.
Audience Selection Approach (Uses & Gratification Model)
Audience choose which films and programmes to watch and which newspapers to buy. Depending upon why they have bought it, or are watching it, the newspaper or film will influence them. Therefore, someone who likes the idea of committing violence may watch a violent film an enjoy it for that.
Age, Class and the Media
UK youngsters watch a lot more TV than European youngsters. British parents feel that playing outdoors unsupervised is far more dangerous than it was for them when they were young. If children are at home watching television, at least they know they are safe.
Representative of Children
- In need to protection
Representative of Youngsters/Teenagers
- Up to no good
- Criminals [Hoodies]
- Folk Devils
Representative of Older People
Gender and the Media
- Representatives of Gender
- Working in the media
- Patriarchy [Men/male dominated, male are at the top]
Many part of the media are dominated by men:
- News/current affairs
Men and women's role in media are different:
- Chat Shows
Youth and looks:
- Women care more about looks
Youth and looks are seen as important. For women, if you're not young and pretty you are valued less. Women had no authority a long time ago.
Youth not seen as the most important thing for men. They get "distinguished" while women just get "old".
Gender stereotyping appears in all forms of media e.g. soap and advertising.
Women are seen as:
- Sex symbol
- Weak and dependant
- An asset to men
- Caring and soft