Mass Bombing of Germany

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MASS BOMBING (1939 - '45)

During Stages 3 & 4 (Total War & Defeat)

What It Was-

  • Aimed at ~150 large cities between 1940-45 (Munich, Berlin, Frankfurt...)
    • take out amunitions factories
  • E.g. 'Operation Gamorrah' = bombing of  Hambourg by day (USA) and night (Brits)
    • firestorm melted tarmac, 1000+ celcius
    • 30,000 died in three night attack
  • When Germny bombed allies (Blitzkreig victories 1940 - France 'lightning strikes') = morale up (winning)
  • Allies fought back = morale down (war effort failing)

How Germany Prepared-

  • Began 1933 (knew Allies would fight back)
  • Spanish Civil War showed civilians (innocents) would be targetted
  • Installed air raids, wardens and warning sirens
    • air-raid exercises and anti-aircraft batteries
    • shelters and bunkers by 1940
  • molare down, in danger
    • start getting nervous - war would be on home front, not far away
  • but, morale up also
    • Nazis working to protect them (with all precautions taken)

Early Attacks-

  • Started late 1939/early '40
  • New phase of air war began end March '42 - bombed Lubeck
    • Start of mass bombing campaign
    • began bombing day and night, with nearly 1000 aircraft
  • 1943 - bombing more intense
    • 43 cities between March and July
  • molare down (if word got round), shows organisation of Allies
  • SD reports spoke of resiliance of people

Evacuation-

  • Kids first
    • by end 1940, 300,000 kids in 200 Nazi camps
    • Allowed further indoctrination
  • Evacuation of children and some women stepped up 1942
    • created tensions in classes nd religion
      • Protestant kids with

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