Mass Media - Criticisms of the HSM

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  • Fesback and Sanger - screen violence can actually provide a safe outlet for people's aggressive tendencies. They argue that media violence has a cathartic effect as watching an exciting film releases aggressive energy into safe outlets as the viewers immerse themselves in action


  • Young - seeing the effects of violence and esoecially the pain and suffering that it causes to the victim and their families may make us more aware of it's consequences and so less inclined to commit violent acts. When filmed in a cetain way, violent scenes can be so shocking as to put people off violence.

Problems of methodology

  • Gauntlett - most effect studies have


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