Spirometer measures expired breath
Ventilation maintains large concentation graident and flow of air in and out the alveoli
Large organisms have small surface: volume area ratio. Lose less heat.
TB is caused by the bacteria called mycobacterium. This is trasmissed by droplets from coughs, sneezes. Symptoms include; coughing, mucus, chest pains, shortness of breath and fever. The infection: Immune system builds a wall around bacteria in the lungs - forms small hard lump called tuberles. Infected tissue dies, gaseous exchange is damaged so tidal volume decreases. Causes fibrosis. Many people are asymoptonic - only becomes active if weakened.
Fibrosis: Scar tissue thicker, less elastic. Tidal volume reduced, diffusion slower. Reduction in rate of gaseous exchange. Shortness of breath. Faster breathing rate to oxygenate their blood.
Asthma: Airways inflamed and irrited by pollen and dust. Contracts and mucus is produced resulting in constriction of airways. Less…