Localisation of function:
Refers to the idea that different areas of the brain are responsible for different behaviours, processes or activities.
Motor, Somatosensory, Visual and Auditory areas:
· The Motor Area- located in a region of the frontal lobe involved in regulating movement. If damaged, it may lead to a loss over control of minor movements, such as writing.
· Somatosensory Area- An area of the parietal lobe that processes sensory information, such as touch. If damaged, it may lead to a loss of sensitivity, such as touch, heat etc.
· Visual Centre- A part of the occipital lobe that receives and processes sensory information. The right visual field is linked to left hemisphere, and vice versa. If damaged, it may lead to blindness, for example, if the left hemisphere was damaged, then it may lead to blindness in the right eye.
· Auditory Centre- Located in the temporal lobe and concerned with analysis of speech-based information. If damaged, this may lead to hearing loss.
· Broca’s Area- The left side of the brain is responsible for language in most people. In the 1880s, a surgeon named Paul Broca, found a small area in the left frontal lobe responsible for speech production. Damages to the Broca’s area causes Broca’s aphasia which is characterised by speech that is slow, laborious and lacking in fluency.
· Wernicke’s Area- Karl Wernicke was describing patients who had no problem producing language but severe difficulties understanding it, such that the speech produced was fluent but meaningless. Wernicke’s area was found in the left temporal lobe as being classified for language comprehension which would result in Wernicke’s aphasia when damaged. Patients who have Wernicke’s aphasia will often produce nonsense…