Localisation of Brain Function



  • Localisation of function are functions such as movement, speech and memory are performed in distinct regions of the brain (localised). The opposite view is the brain acts holistically to perform functions. 

Hemispheric Lateralisation

  • Each hemisphere of the brain (right/left) is specialised to perform different functions. Language centers are in left hemisphere, visuospatial tasks are best perfomed by the right. 


  • Each hemisphere of brain (right/left) controls the opposite (contralateral) side of the body. Including both motor and sensory pathways and vision of the contralateral visual field. 


  • Surface layer of the brain referred to as grey matter (contains mostly cell bodies), 2-4mm thick and folded for extra SA for processing. White matter in the brain is mostly myelinated axons. 

Visual Cortex- Occipital Lobe

  • Brains visual processing center, each hemispheres occipital lobe receives information from the contralateral visual field.
  • Damage: Leads to partial or complete loss of vision called cortical blindness, Damage to one cortex can lead to loss of vision in opposite visual field.

Motor Cortex (frontal lobe) & Somatosensory Cortex (parietal lobe)

  • Motor cortex is at the back of the frontal lobe and somatosensory cortex is at the front of the parietal. They're divided by a fold called the central sulcus and are contralateral.
  • Motor cortex are of the brain responsible for voluntary motor movements (e.g. deciding to move you arm). Contralateral.
  • Somatosensory Cortex Damage: loss of sensation, ignoring areas of the body (neglect syndrome).

Auditory Cortex- Temporal Lobe

  • Recieves and processes sound information from ears. Located in both hemispheres, located…


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