Metaphor and simile.
Comparisons. A simile uses the words “as” or “like”; a metaphor does not.
Examples: “He’s a pig” is a metaphor. “He looks like a pig” and “He’s as fat as a pig” are similes.
Attributing human or other animate characteristics to an inanimate object.
Example: Clouds cry.
Using one object to stand for something else or to mean something else. Actions can also be symbolic, such as washing hands to indicate non-involvement. Some symbols are universal, with generally accepted meanings, such as a crown to mean superiority or the color red to mean danger. Some are specific to a particular work of literature, such as the white whale in Moby Dick. Symbols, especially specific ones, often mean more than one thing.
Conveys the opposite…