Light and Sound Waves

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·         Luminous objects, such as the Sun, give out light. Non-luminous objects only reflect light.

·         Light Waves are all Transverse waves.


·         The Angle of Incidence=The Angle of Reflection

·         This happens when light is bounced of a Plane Mirror

Images created by a Plane Mirror

·         Virtual Images look like they are behind a surface of a mirror so they are rays of light that do not pass through.

·         Real Images are produced when light passes through them. If you can produce a image on a screen, it is real.

Properties of an image in a Plane Mirror

·         The image is the same size as the object

·         The image is virtual as it cannot be produced on a screen.

·         The image is Laterally Inverted


·         When a ray of light travels from air to water it slows down as it crosses the boundrary between two different media.

·         The change in speed may cause the ray to change direction.

·         It refracts towards the normal as it slows down when it enters the the glass block.

Refractive Index

·         A ratio between the Angle of Incidence and Angle of Refraction.

·         Formula: n=sin(i) / sin(r)

Total internal reflection

·         When a ray of light passes from glass into air-The light is refracted away from the normal but there is a small amount of light that is also


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