A study of poverty in 1901 by Seebohm Rowntree found that in a society where those who did not work did not eat, there were three times in people's lives when they were especially vulnerable:
- as a young child
- when they were old
- when they were sick or unemployed
After 1906, the Liberal government, with Lloyd George as Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced reforms to help these three groups:
- In 1906, local authorities were allowed to provide free school meals.
- The 1908 Children and Young Persons Act introduced a set of regulations that became known as the Children's Charter. This imposed severe punishments for neglecting or treating children cruelly. It was made illegal to sell cigarettes to children or send them out begging. Separate juvenile courts were set up, which sent children convicted of a crime to borstals, instead of prison.
- In 1908 pensions were introduced for the over 70s, which gave them 5s a week, or 7s 6d to a married couple. Old people cried as they collected their pensions, and said 'God bless Lloyd George'.
- In 1909, labour exchanges were set up to help unemployed people find work.
- The 1911 National Insurance Act was passed. Part 1 of the act gave people the right…