Lecture Notes - Week 6; the nature of work in modern society


Work, Non-work and Leisure; 

Work - what counts as work is not fixed. Usually, it involves physical/mental effort, payment and a lack of choice.

Non-Work - activities we have no choice about and are unlikely to be paid for e.g eating, sleeping, washing. 

Leisure - some degree of choice and pleasure

Different spheres within work;

Core Economy - duties carried out by friends and family out of affection, duty or tradition e.g cleaning, caring

Formal Economy - paid labour of jobs, occupations and careers, income tax, national insurance e.g employers, employees and self-employed - regulated by the state

Shadow Economy - work is paid but hidden from state 

  • type 1 - grey economy - cash in hand work,  legal but no tax paid
  • type 2 - black economy - illegal, GNI doesn't include this e.g 2014 ONS estimated drug dealing spent £6.62 billion - international trade, prostitution spent £5.65 billion, the problem is not all are reported/recorded

The UK as a post-industrial society;

Urbanisation - rural to urban living 

Mechanisation - replacement of manual labour with machinery 

Specialisation - a new division of labour, narrowing of focus on jobs/aspects of jobs 

Rationalisation - traditional ways…


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