Present Participles (PPs):
Present participles come from verbs, but behave like adjectives, because they describe nouns. Because they behave like adjectives, they must, like adjectives, change their endings to match the noun they describe according to NUMBER and CASE.
Puellae, lacrimantes in cubiculo, tristes erant.
The girls, crying in the bedroom, were sad.
Puer, canem portans, clamavit.
The boy, carring the dog, shouted.
*Present participles have 3rd declension endings.
Perfect Passive Participles (PPPs):
Participles are part verb because they express an action – “praised”. They are also part adjective because they describe a noun. Because they have adjective endings, the ending must agree with the noun it describes. This means the same gender, number and case. They…