Key sociologists – Mass media
· Schiller: Researched Brazilian TV and found that they were a ‘spiced up’ version of Western values, cultures and beliefs
· Cohen and Kennedy: Cultural pessimists underestimate the power of local cultures. People can mix global and local cultures
· McLuhan: predicted there would be a global village, people are no longer part of communities due to the increase of new media and participating in social medias and created a community tied by technology
· Baudrillard: Media creates a hyper reality, where individuals can’t distinguish the difference between what’s real and what isn’t in the media
· Miller: Not everyone has the freedom to construct their own identities e.g. those in poverty can’t afford brands like Gucci.
· Craig: Homosexual characters are stereotyped as having amusing characteristics e.g. camp, macho and emotional
· Gerbnes et al: Gays and lesbians are negatively stereotyped or instead not portrayed at all
· Gill: Homosexual images tend to be sanitised and don’t challenge the heterosexual ideology
· Atkinti: TV often reflects an inaccurate view of black life and focuses on stereotypical issues such as gun crime
· Poole: Pre 9/11, Islam has always been distorted by the western media and Muslims have traditionally been portrayed as a threat to western media.
· Van Dijk: White people are seen as much more newsworthy than non-white people in the media, as this is what the audience prefers. For example, a group of white boys dying in a car crash are likely to receive more media attention than if it were to be black or Asian boys.
· Gill (2007): Media over emphasises on fair skin and whiteness on the assumption that Anglo-Saxon blondes have the ideal feminine look.
· Wolf: ‘the beauty ideal’. A woman’s body is seen as a project of constant development.
-Massive decrease since the 70’s of the proportion of women’s main occupation being a housewife – only 3%
-Magazines now emphasise financial and emotional independence, they promote their own thing to show they can be independent and ****
-Growing expectation that men and women should be treated equally
-Still many magazines aimed at men to sexually objectify women and promote traditional masculine attributes.
· Turnstall: Media emphasises on women’s domestic and consumer activities more than anything else
· Easthope: Media transmits masculinity based on strength, violence and competition, seen as ‘goals’ for boys.
-Media focuses positively on the concerns on the wealthy and over focuses on consumer goods e.g. cars.
-News generalises working class and lower class as problems in society – e.g. welfare cheats.
· Curran and Seaton: Newspapers like the sun assume working class are not interested in political debates and drown audience in celebrity gossip
· Heintz-Knowles: Children in TV programmes are rarely seen as coping with societal issues like racism…