Keeping Healthy

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Keeping Healthy

Pathogens and Disease: Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria and fungi. A pathogen is an organism that carries disease. Bacteria are single-celled and do not all cause disease. Viruses are smaller, non-living and all cause disease. They have antigens on their surface. Viruses take over reluctant host cells and damgae them. Pathogens cause damage to cells by reproducing and releasing toxins. White blood cells form the immune system and have 3 roles: engulf and destroy pathogens; produce antibodies to mark and clump pathogens; to produce antitoxins (done by lymphocytes). Antibodies can work in 2 ways: punching holes in microbes or sticking them together so they can't move and can be ingested by phagocytes. Active immunity os when you make the antibodies yourself and remember it so you are forever immune. Microbes can be grown for the food industry or to test antibiotics. Antibiotics…

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Anisa Akhtar

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