ionic bonding

  • Created by: helper31
  • Created on: 05-04-20 11:13

Ionic Bonding 


Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. This loss or gain leaves a full outer shell, so the electronic structure of an ion is the same as that of a noble gas (such as helium, neon or argon).

Metal atoms and non-metal atoms do different things when they ionize.

Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, at their highest energy level and become positively charged ions.

Ionic Bonding occurs when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. As a result, both atoms get stable electronic structures/ arrangements (a full outer shell)

The atom that gains electrons gain a negative charge, however, the atom that loses electrons gains a positive charge because it now has more protons than electrons.

Ionic bonding always takes place between a metal element and a non-metal element. A metal element has atoms that have a small number of electrons in their outer shell: these are transferred away to the non-metal meaning that the metal always gains a positive charge.

The non-metal has almost a full outer shell, meaning that when it bonds with another atom, it becomes a negative ion.

Structure of Ionic Compounds:

Ionic compounds are formed when electrons are transferred from one type of atom to another. The ions formed are held together by enormous forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. The electrostatic force of attraction which acts in all directions is called the ionic bond.

Ions aren't just held in pairs. They are held in an arrangement surrounded by a giant structure or lattice. The force exerted by one ion on the other ions in the lattice acts equally in all directions, holding the ions very tightly.

The giant structure is very regular, with one type of atom being closely surrounded by a fixed number of ions of the opposite type.

In general, ions are formed when metal atoms transfer their outer electron to an outer shell of a non-metal. This electron transfer forms charged particles called Ions. 

Metal atoms form positive ions because they have lost one or more negatively charged electrons. The positive charge on the ions is the same as the number of electrons that are lost.

Non-metal atoms form negative ions because they have gained one or more negatively charged electrons. The  negative charge on the ions is the same as the number of electrons that are gained by the atom. 

The elements in group 1 and 2 of the periodic table are metals and they form positive ions. 

Each group 1 atom forms a 1+ ion by losing 1 electron from its outer shell and each group 2 atom forms a 2+ atom by losing 2 electrons from its outer shell.

Each group 6 atom gains 2 electrons to form a 2- ion and each group 7 atom gains 1 electron to form a 1- ion.

All the ions formed have the same electronic structure as the nearest noble gas because these are stable electron arrangements. 

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