Investigations, Observations. (AS OCR)

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Observation can be the overall method of a study but it can also be used as a technique for collecting data in a study. For example, Piliavin's field experiment.

Key terms of an observation:

Participant observation - the observer acts as part of the group being observed.

Non-participant observation - the experimenter does not become part of the group being observed.

Naturalistic observation - observations take place in a natural situation

Controlled observation - observations can take place where some variables are controlled and manipulated by the experimenter

Covert observation - under cover, participants are not aware of being observed

Overt observation - open observation, participants are aware of being observed

Structured observation - behaviours to be observed are determined

Unstructured observation - observer records everything that happens 

Time sampling - observations may be made at regular time intervals and coded

Event sampling - Observer keeps a tally chart of each time a behaviour occurs.



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