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Hodges and Tizard.

  • Carried out a natural experiment (longitudional), which examined the long term effects of emotional privation.
  • 65 children brought up in a children's home until they were around 4 years old.
  • During the time in the institution, the children were unable to form any attachments to the carers.
  • The staff were discouraged from forming relationships with the children to prevent the children becoming upset if the staff left their jobs.
  • By the time the children were 2, they had on average 24 carers.
  • The children were provided with good physical care and intellectual stimulation.
  • At around 4 years old, a change took place:
    • 25 of the children were 'restored' to their biological parents who had put them in care as babied.
    • 33 of the children were adopted.
    • The last 7 remained in care.
  • Hodges and Tizard visited both groups of children at aged 8 and 16 - the children took part in interviews with a carer present (eithe mother or care worker)


  • Aged 8.
    • Adopted children were doing best in virtually every way when compared to the 'restored' children.
    • However, they did have more social/cognitive difficulties than a control group (those who had never been in care).
  • Aged 16.
    • Those who hadbeen adopted were able to form close bonds with their adoptive parents whereas the 'restored' children were much less likely to have formed relationships.
    • Both groups had problems with relationships with peers. They were less likely to have a 'special friend', to be part of a crowd or to be liked by any other children.


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