Hodges and Tizard.
- Carried out a natural experiment (longitudional), which examined the long term effects of emotional privation.
- 65 children brought up in a children's home until they were around 4 years old.
- During the time in the institution, the children were unable to form any attachments to the carers.
- The staff were discouraged from forming relationships with the children to prevent the children becoming upset if the staff left their jobs.
- By the time the children were 2, they had on average 24 carers.
- The children were provided with good physical care and intellectual stimulation.
- At around 4 years old, a change took place:
- 25 of the children were 'restored' to their biological parents who had put them in care as babied.
- 33 of the children were adopted.
- The last 7 remained in care.
- Hodges and Tizard visited both groups of children at aged 8 and 16 - the children took part in interviews with a carer present (eithe mother or care worker)
- Aged 8.
- Adopted children were doing best in virtually every way when compared to the 'restored' children.
- However, they did have more social/cognitive difficulties than a control group (those who had never been in care).
- Aged 16.
- Those who hadbeen adopted were able to form close bonds with their adoptive parents whereas the 'restored' children were much less likely to have formed relationships.
- Both groups had problems with relationships with peers. They were less likely to have a 'special friend', to be part of a crowd or to be liked by any other children.