Important Processes LEARN AS OCR chemistry A

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Many important chemical processes exist as equilibrium systems, these include...

  • preparation of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen in the HABER PROCESS.
  • conversion of sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide in the CONTACT PROCESS.

N2(g) + 3H2 (g) ----------> 2NH3 (g)           enthalpy= -92 KJ mol-1

  • Ammonia is produced by the forward reaction in this equilibrium
  • The forward reaction produces fewer gas molecules FAVOURED by using HIGH PRESSURE.
  • The forward reaction is EXOTHERMIC, FAVOURED by using a LOW TEMPERATURE.


  • Although a low temperature should produce a high equilibrium yield, the reaction would take place too slowly! (at a low rate).
  • At low temperatures few N2 and H2


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