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Difference between genetic material of bacteria and virus - B has DNA whereas V can have DNA or RNA. B contains double stranded DNA whereas V can have double stranded DNA or single stranded RNA.

Features of antibodies - Constant regions, Variable region (specific antigen binding site), 3D Y structure with hinge regions, contains peptide bonds and disulphide bridges.

Macrophage presentation - Major histocompatibilty complex on the surface and can bind to T helper cells CD4 receptors

Infection leading to production of plasma cells - Humoral immune response, macrophage engulfs bacteria and lysozyme digest bacteria and presents antigens on its surface (APC), T helper cells release cytokines to stimultate B cell productions, B cells differentiate into plasma cells.

How antibodies help treat infection - Stop spreading of the bacteria by agglutination (clumping bacteria…


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