ICT Unit 1- Data, Information, Knowledge and Processing
What are Data?
Data are raw facts and figures that on their own have no meaning. These can be any alphanumeric characters i.e. text, numbers, symbols.
Examples of data:
- Yes, No, Yes, No.
- 42, 63, 67.
None of the above data sets have any meaning until they are given a context and processed into a useable form.
What is information?
Information is data that has been processed within a context to give it meaning
Data that has been processed into a form that gives it meaning.
An example of data being turned into information could be:
Data - Yes, no, Yes, No.
Context - Resonse to a market research question "Would you buy brand X at price Y?"
What is Knowledge?
Knowledge is being able to understand the relationship or link between pieces of information and knowing what to do with them.
An example linked to the previous example of information could be:
A marketing manger using the information from the survey to decide whether or not to raise or lower price Y.
Knowledge workers - have specialist knowledge that makes them experts. Based on formal and informal rules they have learnt through training and experience.
For example Doctors look at symptoms to diagnose a problem based on these: A rule could be: Blocked nose and a cough = a cold.
What does this have ot do with computers?
Because many rules are based on probabilties computers can be programmed with subject knowledge to mimic the roles of an expert.
What is Direct Data?
Direct (primary) data is data collected from an original source. It is often easiest to think of direct data as data collected by you e.g. a photograph taken by you.
What is Indirect data?
Indirect (secondary) data is data that has been used for a purpose different for which it was originally collected e.g.collecting data on how many tickets have been sold for a film to make sure they are not oversold, and then using the data to find the most popular film.
Direct Data - Advantages:
- Thse source and collection method is known and varified.
- The exact data required can be collected.
- Can change the data being collected in response to answers.
Direct Data - Disadvantages:
- May not get a large range of data.
- Data may not be avaliable (time/location).
Indirect Data - Advantages:
- Large range of data avaliable that could not have been collected directly.
- Data can be avaliable from different locations and time periods.
- Analysis might already have been completed on some of the data.
- Quicker and easier to collect.
Indirect Data - Disadvantages:
- Do not know if any bias was placed on the collection.
- Cannot be certain of accuracy of the recording of data.
- May not have all the information about how, when and where it was collected to make a valued opinion on…