ICT Theory


Types and components of computers

Hardware- the parts of the computer that you can touch and handle

e.g. keyboard, processor, ROM/RAM, speakers

Software- the actual programs consisting of instructions that allow the hardware to do useful job.

e.g. operating system software(Windows), web browser, packages(Microsoft Word)

CPU (Central processing unit)- It does a number of tasks on a small chip and can deal with calculations, running the computer system step-by-step and deal with storage data.

There are 2 types of memory

ROM (Read only memory)- memory stored on a chip which does not lose data when the computer turns off.

RAM (Random access memory)- fast temporary memory which it loses when the computer turns off.


  • Appilcations run faster on their own.
  • More applications are able to run at the same time
  • Move quickly between running applications

The types of interface used with operating system

Graphical user interface- Instead of typing commands you can point at and click objects on the screen to make it easier. The types of objects are : Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers.

Command line interface- Type in a series of commands to use the computer.

Different types of computers

  • Mainframe computer- powerful computer used by companies
  • Desktop computers
  • Laptops
  • Palmtops
  • Personal digital assistant
  • Netbook computers

Input Devices-Hardware devices that are used for the entry of either instructions or data for the computer to process. 

  • Keyboard
  • Numeric Pad
  • Pointing Devices (Laptops)
  • Remote control
  • Joystick (computer games)
  • Touch Screen
  • Chip readers/magnetic…


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