The Cold War
Section 4 – How did the Cold War develop 1943-1956?
Tehran Conference 1943
-Allies knew they would win the war, good relations
-Second front opened to split Germany’s military (Stalin believed allies had prolong this to ruin Russia)
-Potential entry of Soviet Union into Japan war discussed
-‘The Big Three’ also discussed creation of an international organisation to keep peace and prevent a future world war.
Yalta Conference February 1945
-Agreed that Stalin would help defeat Japan once WW2 was over in return for territorial gains.
-Agreed UNO would be set up
-Agreed eastern Europe would be Soviet sphere of influence. Free elections held there.
-Germany would be divided temporarily
-Disagreed over Poland’s border – Stalin wanted to move USSR border into Poland.
Potsdam Conference July 1945
-After WW2: Roosevelt dead, replaced by Truman who is completely against Communism. Churchill voted out of office, replaced by Attlee. Did not have the same, good relations with Stalin
-Stalin helped US defeat Japan as promised
-Agreed on Nuremburg trials – Nazi party banned.
-US had atom bomb
-Disputes over the borders of German zones. Stalin believed he was not getting the industrial areas and wanted more.
-Stalin wanted to completely cripple Germany with reparations so they can never attack the USSR again whereas US and GB wanted to rebuild economy for trade links.
-Stalin forced communist governments in liberated countries and created his buffer zone for the USSR.
Iron Curtain 1946
Churchill gave a speech about the divisions between the Soviets and the Western powers, describing it as an “Iron Curtain”. This clearly distinguished communism and capitalism as two opposing camps in the world. Stalin saw this as a declaration of war.
The Long Telegram and Novikov Telegram 1946
-Telegram sent from US ambassador in Moscow to President Eisenhower to report USSR was building military, developing A-bomb and wanted to destroy capitalism. Ambassador ecommended containment of communism.
-Telegram sent from Soviet ambassador to Stalin reporting that US was preparing for a war and hated communism. US had money for a war whereas Soviet economy was weak
Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan 1947
-Following the Long telegram, Truman gave a speech, outlining his ideology clearly: communism to be contained as it is a threat + Capitalism is freedom. This was because in the aftermath of WW2, Europe was devastated and communism would seem appealing in this state.
-The Truman Doctrine stated that countries had a choice between the two ideologies. Military aid would and financial aid would be provided to rebuild countries as long as they remained loyal to capitalism. Communism would be contained.
- US became involved in Greece civil war (Monarchists supported by GB versus Communists supported by Soviets) the Greek King was returned to the throne, USA no longer in isolationism – now involved and controlling world politics.
-Secretary of State Goerge Marshall visited Europe and recommended rebuilding it. Proposed $17bn be spent. Refused by Congress at first but when pro-American leader of Czechoslovakia was thrown…