- Peter born.
- Russia is a backwards, landlocked country.
- Peter is joint Tsar with half-brother Ivan V.
- Peter wanted a port on the black sea as Russia was landlocked - his target was the town of Azov which stood at the mouth of the River Don.
- FIRST ATTACK ON AZOV. He attempted to attack but a lack of navy meant he was unable to stop Turkish ships supplying the fought.
- PETER BECOMES SOLE TSAR after Ivan V dies.
- Peter constructs his foreign policy;
- To push towards the Baltic, winning land from Sweden in order to acquire a coastline and thus secure "his window into the west". He wanted to reclaim the former Russian coastal provinces.
- To break through to the Black sea at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. This was the first part of his foreign policy but it was of secondary importance in relation to his struggle with Sweden in the Baltic.
- To consolidate the internal expansion of Russia and secure control over the different ethnic groups. Peter wished to push South towards the Caspian sea and North along the baring straits towards Siberia.
- To give Russia a higher profile on the European scene and make her an active player in European diplomacy.
- SECOND ATTACK ON AZOV. In less than a year Peter had managed to construct a fleet of 29 galley's and 1300 barges. He surrounded Azov and after 2 months they were forced to surrender. This attack proved Peter's foreign policy was a success.
- PETER'S GRAND EMBASSY. The two main reasons for Peter's Grand embassy were;
- WESTERNISATION - Russia was a very backward country, he wanted to bring it out of the dark ages. He went on the Grand Embassy to gain information and inspiration to bring his country up to date in order for it to become a more successful and stylish state.
- ALLIES - His main worry about gaining access to the Black sea was the Ottomans who blocked his access. So he went on the Embassy to try and gain support to start a war against the Ottomans, however the Europeans were more concerned about Sweden.
- Although Peter did not gain allies against the Ottomans, he did gain allies against Sweden, as the Swedish Empire dominated Europe.
- - He visited HOLLAND and worked for a CARPENTER.
- He visited ENGLAND to study SHIP BUILDING and ASTRONOMY.
- He visited FRANCE for ARCHITECTURE.
- TREATY OF CARLOWTITZ. This was a peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, saying that he could have Azov if he didn't attempt to expand into the rest of Turkey.
- START OF THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR.
- Charles XII of Sweden came into power at the of 15. Peter thought this was the perfect time to invade Sweden and gain a port to the Baltic sea as it was in the hands of an inexperienced child.
- BATTLE OF NARVA - Charles XII turned out to be a military genius and the Battle…