History USA- Part one 1865-1890 - Gilded Age

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  • 1860-76 the presidency had strains and tension
  • Grant's successor, Hayes, only took office after most disputed election and promised to not seek re-election
  • 1877-96 'era of weak presidents'
  • Grant hoped to run for third term but Republicans chose Rutherford B. Hayes as candidate instead
  • Grant's rep ruined with scandals and depression after 1873 stock market crash 
  • also demo. renewed strength
  • Hayes = moderate with policy and personally, spoke compromise and reconcile, promised 'home rule' to South and to protect civil/political rights of all - impossible
  • Democrat candidate Samuel Tilden was also moderate and had a rep of attacking corruption of Tweed Ring - his campaign could only succeed with South support
  • Hayes and Tilden were not too different
  • was political deadlock over reconstruction
  • after '76 election Tilden narrowly won overall pop vote, but elections are decided by the vote in Electoral college - demos claimed Tilden won south Carolina Florida Louisiana, Republicans disqualified enough votes as invalid and changed the election results and declare Hayes winner
  • was electoral fraud
  • Congress convened a special electoral commission - 15 members, 7 Repubs., 7 Demos, and an independent but independent resigned, replaced by a repub. and awarded Hayes Presidency
  • hayes willingly compromised to be accepted as president to rebuild unity and to have south acceptance - remove all fed troops from S, give fed aid, back rail/public work schemes in S = these steps were accepted as completing redemption of the S
  • Demo. felt giving up Tilden as president was small price for major concessions
  • they promised to treat all freedmen properly but didn't happen
  • Compromise of 1877 ended reconstruction- main purpose to resolve political issues, and allow presidential gov to function - achieved Hayes was recognised as President and and did a lot to restore political responsib.
  • removed all fed troops from S- taking all force out of Enforcement Acts and other legislation with them
  • 1870s- main parties were still evolving and subject to division
  • both coalitions of different regional and sectional fractions
  • Demo.= states' rights, white supremacy in S, limited fed gov role, low tariffs for the 'little man'
  • Repubs = party of union, favour big busi., high protective tariff, values of native-born
  • Hayes was 'weak', narrow victory meant he couldn't have 2nd term in 1880 = almost 'lane duck'. 
  • his political opponents strengthened by 1877 compromise
  • S became solid south, region of one-party gov. where demo. candidate would certainly win
  • Demo. strangle hold on south allowed redeemers to dismantle reformist legis. pushed through by reconstruction
  • black voting rights were undermined, discriminatory changes to law damaged their…

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