history china

  • Created by: jaydene5
  • Created on: 27-11-18 15:05

Controlling the Economy

(Collectivisation,1st five year plan & 100 Flowers Campaign)

Collectivisation of agriculture [1953-57]

Mao and the peasants :

Mao’s long term aim = Transform China into Socialist – society

He wanted to group together small, privately owned farms into much larger, collective farms.

He knew peasants showed a ‘spontaneous tendency towards capitalism.’ -> Mao needed their support.

However Mao believed collectivisation would have to wait:

èHe thought in their political and economic situation they were not ready.

èHowever Mao generally favoured a rapid rate of change

Steps Towards Collectivisation:

Stage One:

·         In 1951, was a step towards a more cooperative form of agriculture. Groups of 10 peasant households were grouped together to share resources. This was only for the poorer peasants, isolating the wealthier.

Stage Two:

·         In 1952-3, the first Agricultural Producers’ Cooperatives (APCs) grouped together 30-50 households. Any profit was shared.

Stage Three:

·         In 1953-5,period of confusing and contradicting directive by Mao. To meet target, peasant were often forced in cooperative that ran in debt.

·         In 1953, Mao slowed things -> In 1954 he sped it up after ‘spontaneous capitalism’ was present.

·         In 1955, Mao decided to push for rapid collectivisation

The Consequences of Collectivisation:

<strong>      CPC control in countryside was strengthened

</strong>      Collectivisation put the pace of change into question

<strong>      Mao was convinced that material condition didn’t need to be the decisive factor in dictating the pace of change. [Caused catastrophic results later on]

</strong>      The impact of agricultural production was disappointing. From 1953 to 1957(5 year plan) agricultural production grew only 3.8%. Grain production only increased 1%.

<strong>      Peasants living standards are debatable


èBelieves peasants were better fed in 1956-57 than early 1950s.


èSaid peasants experienced severe hardship as result of collectivisation.




Industry and the First Five Year Plan


China had seen considerable industrialdevelopment before communist took control in 1949.

·      In late 19th century foreign capitalist exploited China’s coal and mineral reserves. Cities like Beijing and Shanghai had become important industrial centres.

·      Under GMD control in 1920s and 1930s, miles of roads and railways were built with an increase in coal, iron and steel production.

·      In 1922, 78% of Chinese coal mines were in foreign hands.


Balance of payments:

Difference between what a country earns by exports and what it pays for imports


Under GMD rule, China’s foreign trading account (balance of payments)        k   was consistently in deficit


Despite growth, imports of foreign manufactured goods increased.

Communist Aims:

Mao and the CCP wanted China to be self-sufficient.

Under Communist Rule:

·         Foreign-owned businesses were nationalised

·         Foreign trade kept to a minimum

·         Balance of payments kept in credit

Industrial development was absolute priority, Mao believe it would take 15 years…


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