- Created by: theoskingdom
- Created on: 22-03-22 21:30
- A life event is an event that will change the course of someone's life forever.
- Predictable = know it is going to happen, expected - marriage, parenthood, starting school, starting work.
- Unpredictable = do not know it is going to happen, unexpected - bereavement, divorce, serious accident, redundancy.
- Can be positive or negative, short or long term effects.
- Holmes-Rahe Social Readjustment Scale - a method of measuring stress scores, 43 events with scores, higher the score means higher chance of health breakdown, assume stress will effect everyone the same and no consideration of daily stresses.
- A schema is a category of knowledge which goes through a four step process to be acquired.
- Assimilation - Identifying knowledge as something similar and trying to match new informatiion, i.e. cat = dog.
- Disequilibrium - New infortmation is not similar to that already known, knowledge is unbalanced.
- Accomodation - Changing an existing schema or creating a new one to categorise the knowledge.
- Equilibrium - All information is stored, knowledge becomes balanced.
- For - children understand others as this can be seen in play, education is based on age appropriate work, strategies in education have been based on this theory.
- Against - only studied a small number of children, ecouragement can speed up development, child may take longer than expected, adult support allows for higher thinking.
- Sensorimotor (0-2) - interact using senses, invent own ways to solve problems due to being very active.
- Object permanence (around 8 months) - the idea that something still exists even when out of sight.
- Preoperational (2-7) - using symbols, development of language, make believe play, do not understand the concepts of mass and volume.
- Egocentrism - only able to see from their own perspective.
- Concrete operational (7-11) - reasoning becomes logical, understand simple logical problems.
- Theory of Conservation - understanding the relationship between quantity, volume, shape and size.
- Formal operational (11-18) - abstract thought, able to use symbols not as real objects like algebra, think of possible outcomes, can think out complicated ideas without imagery.
- Infancy, 0-2.
- Childhood, 3-8.
- Adolescence, 9-18.
- Early adulthood, 19-45.
- Middle adulthood, 46-65.
- Late adulthood, 65+.
Stages of Play:
- Solo play (0-1) - looks at adults closely, puts things into mouth, touches with hands, plays with toys, simple games, explores toys alone.
- Solo play (12-18 months) - begins to play and talk alone, repeats actions, starts to play with adults, notices other children.
- Parallel play (18 months to 2 years) - enjoys repetitive actions, begins to copy others, enjoys playing with adults and alone, learns to complete tasks through trial and error.
- Associative play (3-4) - begins to play co-operatively with other children, starts to show reasoning skills by asking simple questions, join in play pretend games whilst negotiating and taking roles.
- Co-op play (4-6) - begins using simple rules in games, plays co-operatively towards a shared goal, takes turns when playing games with others.
- Co-op play (6-8) - begins to enjoy playing games…