- Lathers well with soap
- Scum forms unless a soapless detergent is used
- Dissolved calcium and magnesium ions react with soap to form scum (insoluble)
- More soap required to form a lather -> more expensive
- Forms scale when heated (Calcium Carbonate) on the insides of pipes/kettles/etc.
- Badly scaled boilers and pipes mean less efficient heating systems
- Need replacing so scale doesn't block pipes -> costs money
- Scale is a thermal insulator -> Kettle takes longer to boil so is less efficient.
Cause of Hard Water:
- Contain Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions
- When rain falls on rocks like limestone, chalk and gypsum, compounds like Magnesium sulfate and…