Group - 2+ people who interact for more than a few moments, feel like a group and influence each other by interdependent goals/needs.
Aggregate - a collection of people who don't interact for more than a few moments, don't feel like a group and have independent goals/needs.
Group vs. Aggregate
- Level of interaction
- Interdependent/independent goals/needs.
How to groups form?
Form - getting to know each other, high levels of uncertainty
Storm - resist pressure to confrom, high levels of disagreement
Norm - come together with a common purpose, friendships and bonds form
Perform - work towards a common goal
Adjourn - members leave the group feeling accomplished or failed.
Factors affecting group formation:
- People - joining with others in a group depends upon an individuals traits, gender, motives, personal qualities
- Situation - in ambiguous/dangerous situations more likely to come together, some tasks and goals can only be acheived by a team of people
- Relationships - when individuals find that they like one another, more likely to form a group.
- introverts vs. extroverts: extroverts more likely to seek contact and groups with others whereas introverts avoid them.
- relationality: individuals who adopt values attitudes and outlooks which emphasize connections with others seek out group membership.
When and why seek out others???
- Affiliation and social comparison
Ambiguous and uncertain situation - negative feelings and emotions and the need for information - affiliation and social comparison = cognitive clarity
Social comparison = gaining information from others peoples reactions (FESTINGER)
- Norms are ways of behaving and feeling and thinking which the group deems acceptable.
Can be explicit - laws, sanctions and legislations
Can be implicit - unspoken and social regularities.
People conform to the groups norms!
- Conformity to group norms - Asch's line test
- people were presented with 4 lines, 1 line was standard and 3 were comparison lines, TASK WAS EASY AND UNAMBIGUOUS.
- 6 trials - confederates agreed with correct answer
- 12 trials - confederates gave wrong answer
25 percent refused to be influenced
75 percent conformed to the wrong answer on at least 1 of the trials
Unanimity was critical, less conformity…