What is Globalisation and Global Shift?
• Concepts of cultural, economic, environmental and political globalisation.
• The evolution of globalisation – the stages in its development.
• Global Shift - the movement of economic activities.
Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected in terms of economics, politics, society, culture and the environment. There is no single definition of globalisation. See below:
Types of Globalisation;
- Economic- growth of TNC’s accelerates across border exchanges of raw materials, components and finished manufactured goods. ICT supports growth of complex spatial divisions of labour firms and a more international economy. Internet and worldwide web has allowed extensive networks of consumption to develop e.g. online purchasing using Ebay/ Amazon.
- Political- growth of trading blocs e.g. EU and NAFTA allows TNC’s to merge and make acquisitions of firms in neighbouring countries while reduced trade restrictions and tariffs help markets grow. World Bank, IMF and WTO work internationally to harmonise national economies.
- Cultural/social- international immigration has created extensive family networks across national borders- world city societies become multi ethnic and polaristic. Global improvements in health, education over time, rising world life expectancy, literacy rates. Americanisation/ western culture, circulation of ideas via technology and social networks.
- Environmental- global warming, climate change, glaciation etc
The Origins of Globalisation – when did it all begin?
The origins of globalisation can be dated back to the 1600s, a period known as colonialism.
What is colonialism?
- Colonialism is the subjugation by force of one culture by another, generally through military conquest of territory. Beginning in the early C16th, European adventurers, sailors and ultimately colonists, travelled along African coasts, to the new world (North and South America) and across the Indian Ocean and China Seas. They were seeking fur, precious metals, slaves, spices, tobacco, cocoa, potatoes, sugar and cotton. The European powers, initially Spain and Portugal but followed by the Dutch, France and Britain exchanged manufactured goods such as cloth, guns and implements for these products, and for African slaves which they transported to The Americas. In this process they reorganised the world.
- This process expanded during the C18th and C19th. The colonists established companies for the specialised extraction of metals, especially gold and silver. These metals were not found on a large scale in North America and Europe. Also the production of primary agricultural products such as rubber, which could not be grown in Europe, was encouraged. European manufacturing was able to expand using these products, which became both industrial inputs and food stuffs for the work force. On a world scale this specialisation between European economies came to be termed the colonial or first international division of labour.
- This division of labour…