Crime and globalization -
- Held et Al - there has been a globalization of crime
- Catells argues there is a global criminal economy worth £1 trillion per annum.
- This takes many forms - trafficking, cyber crime, drugs, sex tourism
Global risk consciousness -
- Globalization now causes new insecurities or risks.
- The risk is now seen as global rather than tied to certain places.
- On result is tighter border controls.
Globalization, capitalism, crime -
- Marxists - Taylor believes globalization has led to greater inequality
- TNCS can now switch manufacturing to low wage countries to gain higher profits
- deregulation means governments have little control over their own economies and state spending on welfare has declined.
- This has produced new crime and rising crime -
- Among the poor, greater insecurity makes people turn to crime
- Globalization causes large scale crime opportunities
- new employment can cause crime - flexible workers - working illegally
Patterns of criminal organization -
1. Glocal organization -
- This is different from Mafia-style criminal organizations of the past.
- Although they have global links, crime is still rooted in its local context
- Glenny examed McMafia - Organisations that emerged in Russia and Eastern Europe after the fall of communism 1989.
- The Russian government deregulated much of the economy, leading to huge rises in food and rent.