Germany 1918-1945

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  • Created by: Poppy
  • Created on: 31-03-15 10:29

Germany 1918-1945

1918 ISSUES

·       Poor

·       Food + fuel shortages

·       3/4mil. Died

·       Turnips 1000cal

·       Close buildings + power cuts

·       Civil + military unrest

·       Farming slowed (drafted out farmers)

·       Couldn’t import (Britain blocked ports)

·       50% less milk

ABIDICATION OF KAISER WILHELM

·       Refused at first

·       Soldiers + worked took over cities (2 end war) + danger of revolt by social democrats (voted for by workers + conservative + wanted to save Kaiser but other social parties would take lead)

·       Soc.dem. sent ultimatum (if no abdicate = revolt)

·       Nov 9 – strikes + public told + Ebert took lead

·       Kaiser fled to holland

·       Armistice agreed between countries.

Why...


1.     War

2.     Wasn’t doing job

3.     Refusal to abdicate

4.     General strike

5.     Ebert wanted power

6.     No allies/ no trade

7.     Civil unrest

 


TREATY OF VERSAILLE

Reasons for optimism (Before Versailles)...


1.     Abdication

2.     Democratic govt.

3.     Allies would help

4.     Wilson ( President ) wanted fair Europe


Why Germans hate Versailles...


1.     No role in points made

2.     Open fighting on streets (No perm. Leader) Communist Vs. Freikorps

3.     No air force/sub/tiny army (100,000soldier + 15,000 Navy)+ couldn’t link w. Austria

4.     Territorial loses (13%)

5.     Guilt

6.     6600mil commission

7.     10%Industry + 15% agriculture


Who...
USA – Wilson
France – Clemencean (Toughest of Germany – where war was fought)
UK – Lloyd George (Make Germany stable (Trade) Punish wout. Punishing UK + Public want revenge)

November Criminals + Stab In the back...

‘Germans never really lost’
Punished for war they hadn’t started
Only honouring Alliance
Weak Govt.
‘wouldn’t happen with kaiser’

WEIMAR CONSTITUTION


ADVANTAGES
Equal rights
Prop. Representation of parties
Strong Leader
Each state had an assembly

DISADVANTAGES
too radical change
Prop.Rep. small parties – no majority
‘Article 48’ – Dictatorship
Local states could resist main govt.


ANTI REPUBLIC

·       German communist party

·       National Party (wanted Authority + German military power)

·       Nazis (Too weak to matter at time)

ISSURES REPUBLIC MAY FACE...

1.     Freikorps fighting in street

2.     Ebert = Shit

3.     Lack of agreement (Spartacist Uprising)

4.     Polarisation (Nazi Vs. Communist = Opposite)

5.     Communist Appeal

UPRISINGS
Politicows

Extreme L                         Left                        Centre                       Right                        Extreme R
Communist                                                                                                                          Fascism

RIGHT -  conservative + opposed to political reform
LEFT – liberal/radical/ favour pol. Reform

SPARTACIST LEAGUE


·       Left wing revolutionaries

·       Wanted social revolt ( like Russia)

·       Don’t trust Ebert

·       Rid of Kaiser + capitalism

·       People supported RL because disliked Ebert +how country was run + anti-war + RL=good speaker + known


OTHERS:
Soc.Dem. – Get rid of Kaiser + end revolt
Marxist- Communist but didn’t want revolt (lose support of rich)
Ebert supported army order +…

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