Geography: Rivers

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Upper-course river features include steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges.

Middle-course river features include wider, shallower valleys, meanders, and oxbow lakes.

Lower-course river features include wide flat-bottomed valleys, floodplains and deltas.

  • The formation of meanders is due to both deposition and erosion and meanders gradually migrate downstream.

Lower course features

In the lower course, the river has a high volume and a large discharge. The river channel is now deep and wide and the landscape…

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