Geography : urbanisation

  • Created by: Nat
  • Created on: 30-11-18 22:08


  • Urbanisation Urbanisation is the increase in the amount of people living in towns and cities.
  • Urban sprawl - The expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into more rural areas.
  • Migration - The movement of people from one place to another.
  • Urban regeneration - The revival of old, urban areas by either improving what there is or clearing it away and rebuilding it. 

Rural - Urban migration

Push factors

  • Natural disasters.
  • War and conflict.
  • Mechanisation (jobs replaced by machines).
  • Droughts.
  • Lack of employment.

Pull factors

  • More jobs.
  • Better education and healthcare.
  • Increased quality of life.
  • Family members may live there.

Rio de Janeiro

Traffic management

  • Jamie Learner made a new intergrated traffic system (the use of buses).
  • There are  triple articulated buses to reduce the number of people using cars and damaging the environment.
  • It is very efficient (comes every 60s).
  • The transport system funds itself as 2 million people use it per day.
  • Employers subsidises their employees to use it.
  • There are more pedestrianised areas built to enourage more walking.
  • No one lives more than 400m from a bus stop so it is  easy to commute everywhere.
  • 80% of travellers use this system. This means that the CO2 emissions are significantly less and they can live in a more sustainable lifestyle.
  • Walking and cycling are safe.

Air pollution management

  • Reducing the amount of vehicles used reduces the amount of greenhouse gases emitted.
  • Lots of parks are being created to be able to absorb more of the CO2. In total, the is 12 acres per 1000 people.
  • The parks also allow people to walk to work and create leasure facilities.
  • At the roof of flats, plants are planted there to absorb more of the pollutants.

Urban challenges 


  • Severe shortage of housing, schools and healthcare centres available.
  • Health services for women and elderly were poor in the west zone.
  • Children drop out of school for  drug trafficking.


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