Geography Revision-End of Year 9


Natural Hazard-extreme event that occurs naturally and causes harm to humans(or to other thIngs that we care about, though usually the focus is on humans)

Nepal Earthquake Case Study

25th April 2015


  • Nepal-by India and China, Eurasian and Indian plates moved away from each other
  • 85 miles east of Kathmandu

Survival Stories

  • 26 year old pregnant lady rescued from rubble
  • Tiny baby pulled alive from rubble

Effects on Kathmandu

  • More than 1000 died in Kathmandu
  • Kathmandu struck again by a tremor near Mount Everest
  • The Dharahara tower collapsed killing 180 people
  • Saturday-day of worship-500 people died when churches collapsed
  • 180 buildings destroyed-more dangerous than the actual earthquake
  • Human traffickers took children to brothels
  • Geophysicists warned for decades that it would happen

Effects on Everest

  • 220km away from the epicentre
  • Climbers said that it looked like it had been hit by a bomb
  • 19 mountaineers died, 250 missing


  • 1.7 million children forced to live outside
  • UN wanted $432m from other countries but only got $88m
  • Difficult to rescue because of after shock
  • China, India, US, UK sent AID from abroad

Key Facts

  • 9,000 people died
  • 23,000 people injured
  • Aftershock 7,3 on Richter scale
  • Mount Everest shifted 3cm
  • Earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest


Eyjafjallajokull Iceland Volcano Case Study

14th-21st April 2010


  • Iceland
  • 1000 miles from the UK


  • North Atlantic and Eurasian plates moving away from each other
  • The plates moved apart at a rate of 1cm-5cm per year. This created a chain of volcanoes
  • Peak in activity every 140 years
  • Mixed magma and water caused explosion
  • After the last eruption in 1821 magma was left in the volcano, which emerged up with the magma from 2010

Effects of the Eruption

  • Flights in an out of the UK cancelled and grounded
  • 6 or 7 lambs died at the start of lambing system-from black spots on lungs
  • The eruption put 30,000 tonnes of CO2 into the air per day-make a huge addition to the CO2 emissions
  • About 500 people were moved from the area 
  • 1/4 billion cubic meters of ash
  • Ash buried beneath the snow


  • "May be repeated in the 21st century"-president
  • Prepared by moving animals inside
  • Farmers were evacuated-allowed back once a day to feed animals, whilst wearing masks
  • Iceland issued a red alert

Key Facts

  • Nobody died
  • Between the 3rd and 5th there were plenty of warning signs of an eruption
  • "This is not even a major eruption, so its startling to see the impact its had" Matthew Jones

Plate Tectonics

Earth's Layers

Inner Core-solid ball of iron and nickle

Outer Core-molten

Mantle-3000km thick, liquid

Crust-brittle rock, the Earth's crust if cracked, which forms tectonic plates

Continental Crust-oldest, very thick but light in weight

Oceanic Crust-newest, very thin but heavy

Convection currents(in the mantle)-are the reason the tectonic plates move

Constructive Margin

When tectonic plates pull apart, magma from the mantle rises up and solidifies to fill the space. The sea floor…



There are diagrams to go with the revision notes, however I couldn't add them into this. Message me or comment if you would like the diagrams, as they are a vital part of the revision, and some of the notes don't make sense without them (because the diagrams are sometimes explained in the notes).



Kathleen Alderman

why 2 accounts beth

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