An example of country in the pre-industrial stage is Ethiopia. Here, ¾ of the population works in the primary sector with jobs including farming and mining. There is a high number of subsistent farmers. Only 10% work in the secondary sector with jobs including textile work, leather, and factories. The high employment rate in the primary and secondary sector is due to lack of education; less people are able to work in the tertiary sector as they don’t have the specific qualifications. Many families also don’t have enough money to pay for education so children end up working with them so that they can earn enough money for themselves and to sell. On the DTM (Demographic Transition Model), Ethiopia is between Stage 1 and 2.
An example of country in the industrial stage is China. Most of the jobs are in factories as the number of primary sector jobs has decreased as it is more developed. The main primary jobs are mining. The population is slowly starting to grow and life expectancy is also increasing; more people are living longer and therefore working longer. On the DTM (Demographic Transition Model), China is in Stage 3. As shown in the Clark fisher model, the tertiary sector rapidly increases due to the change in education and service provision.
An example of country in the post-industrial stage is UK. Most jobs are tertiary jobs, which include police, ambulance and other services. Both secondary and primary jobs continue to decrease. Now quaternary jobs are introduced. These are research jobs. On the DTM (Demographic Transition Model), the UK is between Stage 4 and 5.
Global institutions, which help the process of Globalisation:
WTO – World Trade Organisations. This helps increase globalisation by promoting international trade. For example, the UK has put a tax on South American bananas trading into the EU to give Indian bananas an equal chance of selling and exporting their bananas to the HICs (High Income Countries). This will help India develop and earn more money.
IMF – International Monitory Fund. This helps increase globalisation by encouraging foreign direct investment (investing in a country, which needs support). For example, China has invested in African countries such as Namibia to build more brick factories. In this way, both parties are satisfied because the Chinese company gets cheap labour and workers get just about enough money to survive.
TNC – Trans National…