Chromosomes, Genes and DNA
Inside our cells are chromosomes which are made out of DNA. Our chromosomes contain the information that make us unique. In humans there are 46 chromosomes - 22 of these are in pairs (we got one from mum and one from dad) and the final two are sex chromosomes - XX for females and XY for males
We inherit our chromosomes from our parents; this is why we have characteristics which are similar to our mum and dad.
Each chromosome is like a recipe book containing genes which are recipies for making various parts of us. Genes basically contain the coding to make a protein and it is protins that our bodies are made out of - skin, hair, blood, saliva and so on are all made out of proteins.
When you look atone characterisic of an individual such as hair colour, you can see that there can be a variety of different types of gene (such as blonde, brown and black hair). This is because there are sever different versions of the gene for hair colour - the different verisons of the genes are called alleles. Enviroment can affect characteristics as we
A clone is a gentically identical copy of an organism. Cloning of plants has been taking place for thousands of years. If you take a cutting of a plant and place it into the ground and start warering it then it will grow into a new plant. As the plant only has one parent, it is genetically identical to it.
Many plants do…