Genetic engineering and the industrial use of microoorganisms

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Genetic engineering and the industrial use of micro-organisms


Yeast ---> beer

Glucose ---> ethanol + carbon dioxide

Beer production

1. Barley seeds germinate, amylase - digest starch

2. Seeds and killed and dried - malt

3. Malt mixed with water in a mash tun. Amylase - starch ---> maltose

4. Mash is boiled and filtered

5. Hops added for taste

6. Yeast added to ferment sugars

7. Beer is centrifuged and filtered

Yoghurt production

1. Milk is pasteurised for 15-30 mins at 85-95°C

2. Milk is homogenised

3. Milk is cooled to 40-45°

4. Inoculated with a culture of lactic acid bacteria

5. Incubated at 40-45°C for several hours, bacteria digest proteins and ferment lactose to           lactic acid

6. Stirred and cooled to 5°


Fermenters control: temp., oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, pH and nutrient levels.

Need to be sterile.

Inside an industrial fermenter

pH: Kept constant by adding acid/alkali

Oxygen: Filtered air added when organisms need oxygen

Temp.: Cooled by water jacket



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