genetic engineering - by recominant DNA

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Recombinant DNA


  • define the term recombinant DNA; 
  • explain that genetic engineering involves the extraction of genes from one organism, in order to place them in another organism
  • describe how sections of DNA containing a desired gene can be extracted from a donor organism using restriction enzymes; 
  • explain how isolated DNA fragments can be placed in plasmids, with reference to the role of ligase; 
  • state other vectors into which fragments of DNA may be incorporated;
  • explain how plasmids may be taken up by bacterial cells in order to produce a transgenic microorganism that can express a desired gene product;  
  •  outline how genetic markers in plasmids can be used to identify the bacteria that have taken up a recombinant plasmid; 

Important Points:

  • Important recombinant DNA; A section of DNA, often in the form of a plasmid, which is formed by joining DNA sections from two different sources
  • Important DNA ligase joins together the phosphate sugar backbones from the plasmid and the desired gene, to form recombinant DNA
  • Important Density gradient ultacentrifugation and electrophoresis are also carried out!

Lecture Topic:

Process: genetic engineering by recombinant DNA

  1. Once a desired gene has been identified, it can be cut from DNA using a restriction enzyme
  2. A plasmid is a small circular piece of DNA.  Plasmids often carry genes that code for resistance to antibiotic chemicals.
  3. plasmids are cut with the same restriction enzyme as that used to isolate the gene, then complementary stickyends will be formed
  1. The restriction enzyme cuts at the palindromic parts
  • Howto cut:
    • Add a set of DNA
    • To buffer solution
    • To restriction enzymes
    • Tube is closed
    • Contents mixed
    • Transfers to 72.c water bath
    • Add ED TA to stop enzyme action
  1. Mixing quantities of plasmid and gene in the presence of ligase enzyme allows some plasmids to combine with the gene,
  2. which then becomes


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