Genetic Engineering

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  • Created by: tiacoles
  • Created on: 19-04-16 18:01

Genetic engineering involves the extraction of a gene from one organism, or the manufacture of a gene, in order to place it into another organism in which it will be expressed. 

Production of insulin

People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin and need daily injections. The gene is inserted into bacteria so that large quantities could be manufactured. 

  • Preparation of insulin gene
  • mRNA for human insulin extracted from pancreas cells
  • Reverse transcriptase uses mRNA as a template to make single stranded complementary DNA (cDNA) and this is made double stranded by DNA polymerase.
  • A single sequence of nucleotides is added to each end of the DNA for sticky ends (GGG)
  • Preparation of a vector to carry the human gene into a bacterium
  • Plasmid is cut open with a restriction enzyme
  • Cut plasmid has a single nucletoides added to each to make sticky ends
  • Plasmid and insulin gene are mixed so that sticky ends form base pairs.
  • DNA ligase links sugar-phosphate backbones of plasmid and insulin gene. 
  • Formation of genetically engineered bacteria 
  • Plasmids are mixed with bacteria in the presence calcium ions (increase porosity) 
  • Bacteria take up plasmids and multiply to form a clone
  • Genetically engineered bacteria transcribe and translate the human gene to make human insulin. 

Production of Golden Rice

Provides vitamin A in


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