Gene probes are prepared by using part of the known amino acid sequence that contains tryptophan and methionine. This is because these only have one codon. Corresponding mRNA from cells can also be used to generate probes.
New genes can be made by using deletions, insertions and substitutions of base pairs or whole sequences of base pairs.
Completed genome sequences of pro/eukaryotes has allowed better understanding of genes and also shows evolutionary changes and common ancestors.
Gene expression levels can be determined by quantitative PCR.
Regulatory sites are the binding sites for specific DNA-binding proteins which can stimulate or repress gene expression. This was first discovered with E.coli and the lactose…