Gender and Sex
The difference between sex and gender is that sex refers to someone as amle or female based upon their internal and extenal sex organs whereas gender describes the chracteristics that a cultuture delineates as masquline and feminine.
As gender links to behaviour and behaviour is part of our identity.
Male sterotypes to gender identity
- Being tough
- Provide for the family
- Family man
- Not emotional
Doing the cleaning
- Not smart
- Doing the cooking
- Trophy wife
- Not sporty
- Over dramatic
- Split personality
David Gauntlett work on Social Order and Social Reproduction
As discussed i Media, Gender and Idenity: An introduction (2002) David Gauntlett
He provided the example 'When a boy goes to school wearing eyeliner and a dash of lipstick, the shockwaves can be powerful. Yet he only suplemented his apperance with materials which are used by millions of women every day. Women who choose not to shave their legs or armpits may be singled out in a similar way, treated as deviants for ignoring social convention about femine apperance.'
Gauntlett notes that everyday actions reinforce and reproduce a set of expecations. It is this set of other people's expectations which make up the 'social forces' and scoial structures'. We can use these to construct aspects of our identity, to fit in with other collective identities or feel alienated if we appear different.
Gauntlett discusses that it is because of this faith in the way we 'expect'; things to be, that some people are so shaken when others challenge the taken-for-granted consensus about how, for examplle how men and women behave.
Gauntlett continues 'we could say, for example that this explains why some men are disturbed- or even angered- to see other men acting in an effeminate manner, because this behaviour challenges their everyday understanding of how things should be in the world.
Gauntlett concludes 'The performance of gender appears here, as something which is learned and policed, and which has to be constantly worked on and monitored.
3 Waves of Feminism
- 1st Wave- mid 19th/early 20th century. This was a fight for social and policical equality. There was a stuggle or women's right to vote. 1918- granting the vote for women over 30.1928-Women recieved the vote on equal terms of men. Key concerns icludes education, employments and marraige laws. thew sucesses higher education for women, married women's property's rights and the widening of access to professions such as medicine.
- 2nd Wave- Liberation 1960's and 1970's. Largely to do with struggles with equal pay, equal rights at work, and better represntation in public bodies such as parliament. Acess to contraception, increasing choice of women to be be pregnant or not. Sterotype of dowdy, man hating feminist.
- 3rd wave- 1980s-1990s. Less emphasis of battles for equality. More emphasis on positve nature of ambiguity and difference. (Not all women are the same, so it does not matter). Girl power- Spice girls. Heroines-…