Marginalisation Thesis: Power of TNCs.
Social structures and relationships which were imposed under colonialism, and still through neo colonialism, served to push women to the fringes of society, excluding them from public economic and political systems and confuesing them to the domestic sphere.
For example, according to LEONARD, men rather than women are employed as agricultural labourers. Many men migrate to other regions in search of work leaving women to subsist without male help on smaller / poorer work leaving women to subsist plots of land not taken by elites or TNCs for cash crop production.
AID projects also marginalise women. The introduction to modern agriculutral technology is primarily aimed at them. AID is not gender neutral as aid workers bring with them their gender assumptions, from their home countries - often this means, male dominated, male focussed aid projects - i.e. technical projects.
The WEST undermine the power of some women in particular societies.
Modernisation theorists would blame these on internal factors within the society rather than large scale ignoring the fact these could have perhaps been influenced by the ruling elite, but displaces the idea of it being blamed externally.
Other criticisms lie in the hands of that aid agencies have started to focus on the positioning of women in societies and also this being extremely old information being used in todays conducted research for sociologists. This should, and could be heavily challenged.
Exploitation Thesis: Marxist / Feminst View.
TNCs exploting via the employment of female workers. They are seen as cheap, pliable and docile. They are seen as easy to control at a very cheap cost.
Women take on these jobs because there is no alternative or the patriachal conditions of their society…