GCSE AQA Geog A - Urban


Growth of proportion of a country's population living in urban areas

Reduction in those living in rural areas

Causes of Urbanisation

Rural-urban migration

  • Reasons in Poor countries - PUSH: shortage of services, poor living standards, PULL: improved medical care, jobs,, better infrastructure 
  •  Reasons in Rich countries - mechanisation, jobs

Natural Increase

  • Young people - have children, high birth rates
  • Improved medical care - live longer

Parts of a city

  • CBD - central area, main shopping and services
  • Inner city - oldest part, poor quality housing but newer houses as well
  • Suburbs - housing areas at the edge of the city, middle-class, less pollution
  • Rural-urban fringe - egde, urban land uses (factories) and rural land uses (farming)

Urban Issues 

Issue 1 - Housing - Shortage of housing

Population is increasing

More people want to live on their own

  • Building new towns
  • Relocation incentives
  • Urban Renewal Schemes 

Issue 2 - CBDs and Inner City 

Run-down, pollution, competition from out-of-town shopping centres


  • Pedestrianisation
  • Better public transport


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