GCSE History Unit 1 - The Cold War

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The Cold War

The Tehran Conference, November 1943: Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill attended.

Agreements: Britain and the USA agree to open a second front by invading France. Soviet Union to join the war against Japan once Germany was defeated. United Nations to be set up after the war and an area of Poland was added to the Soviet Union.

Problems: Stalin annoyed tha the 2nd front was delayed - suspected that Britain and US wanted the Soviet Union damaged. Churchill suspicious of Stalin and his motives in Eastern Europe.

The Yalta Conference, February 1945:Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill attended. Germany were nearly defeated at this time.

Agreements: Germany would be divided into 4 zones and France would also run a zone. Germany's capital Berlin would also be split into 4 zones. The countries of Europe would be allowed to hold free elections to decide how they wish to be governed. Put Nazi war criminals on trial and USSR would join the war against the undefeated Japan.

Problems: How much Germany would pay - Stalin wanted them to pay more money than Roosevelt and Churchill did. Poland's borders and whether they should have free elections.

The Potsdam Conference, July 1945: Stalin, Truman [USA], and Attlee [Britain] attended. By this time the war was over and the allied leaders did not get on well. Stalin's army was growing in number and still liberated countries and Stalin set up a communist government in Poland. The USA had successfully tested their Atomic Bomb in July.

Agreements: Nazy party were banned and their leaders were said to be war criminals. Establish a democracy in Germany with free elections and Germany would pay reparations - mostly to the Soviet union. All would join the United Nations.

Problems: About free elections in Eastern Europe and Stalin wanted to cripple Germany but USA and the UK wanted Germany to recover economically and politically. At the end of Potsdam each side was suspicious about the thoughts of the other.

The Truman Doctrine 1947: President Truman states in 1947 that America will always protect and country threatened by the spread of Communism. This included all countries that were in war against Communists. Stalin took this as a threat.

The Marshall Plan 1947: USA state they will give money to any country needing financial help in Europe after WW2. USA help non-communist countries in the West, whilst Communist countries in the East suffer. This helps stop spread of Communism and creates a divide across Europe which was called The Iron Curtain.

The Berlin Crisis 1948 - 1949: Germany and Berlin was divided into zones at the end of WW2. In 1948, US, UK and France controlled the West and the USSR controlled the East. Many East Germans started to leave for the West as it had more money. Stalin wanted the western powers to leave Berlin altogether. Stalin tried to blockade west Berlin to force the allies out and they did this by:

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